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All Publication items on Prevención de accidentes

Summary - New risks and trends in the safety and health of women at work (06/03/2014)

In 2009 and 2010, the Agency commissioned an update to its previous research on gender issues at work , which found that inequality both inside and outside the workplace can have an effect on the health and safety of women at work. This summary provides a policy perspective and is meant to contribute to the task outlined by the European strategy on health and safety at work for EU-OSHA’s European Risk Observatory, “examining the specific challenges in terms of health and safety posed by the more extensive integration of women in the labour market”. It provides a statistical overview of the trends in employment and working conditions, hazard exposure and work-related accidents and health problems for women at work. It explores selected issues (combined exposures, occupational cancer, access to rehabilitation, women and informal work, and “emerging” female professions such as home care and domestic work). The research highlights the type of work carried out by women, issues faced by younger and older women, the growth of the service sector, violence and harassment, and increasingly diversified working time patterns as major risk factors.

E-fact 75: Dangerous substances and successful workplace communication (27/06/2013)

Workplace safety depends on risk awareness. Employers and workers need to know what dangerous substances are in the workplace and how to deal with them. This e-fact offers hints for successful communication in the workplace about dangerous substances, including the use of safety data sheets, and provides a list of sources of further information. It outlines how two new regulations on chemicals aim to improve communication about the risks of dangerous substances at workplaces. These are on registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) and classification, labelling and packaging (CLP).

E-fact 71: Hazard identification checklist: Occupational safety and health issues associated with green building (31/05/2013)

This checklist accompanies the e-fact on the same topic and aims to help identify the potential hazards to workers’ safety and health associated with the planning and construction of green buildings, their maintenance, renovation (retrofitting), demolition, and on-site waste collection. It also gives examples of preventive measures to address these hazards. Some of these OSH hazards are new compared with traditional construction sites and are associated with new green materials, technologies or design. Other hazards are well-known to the construction sector but they arise in new situations or combinations associated with green buildings and therefore demand particular consideration.

E-fact 70: Occupational safety and health issues associated with green building (31/05/2013)

This e-fact provides information on the work-related risk factors and the occupational safety and health (OSH) issues associated the planning and construction of green buildings, their maintenance, renovation (retrofitting), demolition, on-site waste collection. Some of these OSH risks are new compared with traditional construction sites and are associated with new green materials, technologies or design. Other risks are well-known to the construction sector but they arise in new situations or combinations associated with green buildings and therefore demand particular consideration.

E-fact 69: Hazard identification checklist: OSH risks associated with small-scale solar energy applications (31/05/2013)

Small-scale and domestic solar energy installations are widely used but only scant attention has been given to the associated occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects so far. Many workers’ groups in various types of workplaces and sectors are involved with such systems along their life cycle. This checklist accompanies the e-fact on the same topic and aims to help identify the potential hazards to workers’ safety and health from small-scale and domestic solar energy systems throughout their life cycle, from manufacturing, installation and maintenance to decommissioning and recycling. It also gives examples of preventive measures to address these hazards.

E-fact 68: OSH and small-scale solar energy applications (31/05/2013)

Small-scale and domestic solar energy installations are widely used but only scant attention has been given to the associated occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects so far. From their manufacturing, transport, installation and maintenance to decommissioning and recycling, many workers’ groups in various types of workplaces and sectors are involved with such systems. This e-fact provides information on the work-related risk factors and OSH issues associated with domestic and small-scale solar energy installations across their life cycle.

Liderazgo en la gestión de la prevención en materia de salud y seguridad en el trabajo — Una guía práctica (17/04/2012)

Unos lugares de trabajo seguros y saludables ayudan a las empresas y a las organizaciones a alcanzar el éxito y a prosperar, y benefi cian además a la sociedad en su conjunto. La presente guía ofrece a los directivos información práctica sobre el modo de mejorar la salud y la seguridad mediante un liderazgo efi caz, la participación de los trabajadores y una evaluación y revisión continuas para que las empresas y organizaciones resulten seguras y saludables para todos. Una herramienta diagnóstica de autoevaluación permite obtener una visión del nivel de prevención existente en la empresa y aporta ideas de mejora.

How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide (21/12/2011)

This Guide on Economic Incentives Schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimise their own economic incentive schemes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers), but should also reward specific prevention efforts that aim to reduce future accidents and ill-health. Therefore the expert group suggested the development of compilations of innovative and evidence-based preventive solutions, starting with the three sectors construction, health care and HORECA.

Innovative solutions to safety and health risks in the construction, healthcare and HORECA sectors (21/12/2011)

One conclusion from the EU-OSHA economic incentives project is that incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as accident numbers in experience rating), but should also reward specific prevention efforts that aim to reduce future accidents and ill-health. Experts from the economic incentives project therefore suggested the development of compilations of innovative and evidence-based preventive solutions, starting with the three sectors construction, health care and HORECA (hotels, restaurants, catering). The preventive measures from these compilations are worth promoting in their own right, as well as being applied in economic incentives schemes. These preventive solutions can be used as a basis for incentive-providing organisations to develop their own incentive scheme, adapted to the specific situation in their sector and country.

Occupational Safety and Health culture assessment - A review of main approaches and selected tools (29/11/2011)

Occupational safety and health culture, or more briefly 'OSH culture', can be seen as a concept for exploring how informal organisational aspects influence OSH in a positive or negative way. The aim is to convey up-to-date information on this complex topic in a straightforward, condensed way, trying to build a bridge between research and practice. The main approaches and methods that exist to assess the safety culture in an organisation are presented and discussed. This review gives an overview and selection of useful tools and techniques from the EU domain and abroad.

Magazine 12 - Healthy Workplaces. A European Campaign on Safe Maintenance (21/10/2011)

This Magazine is part of the resources produced to support the European Campaign on Safe Maintenance. The articles in the Magazine demonstrate the wide range of maintenance related issues that have an impact on maintenance safety and more generally on safety and health at work. These include, among others, maintenance organisation, maintenance planning, risk assessment, human behaviour, chemical safety, design, subcontracting maintenance, communication and training, and inspection of personal protective equipment.

Emergency services: occupational safety and health risks (01/10/2011)

The report shows that emergency workers have a high risk of suffering fatal accidents, injuries and other occupational diseases. Past disasters demonstrate that both communities and companies are often not fully prepared for major accidents and catastrophes. Better protection for emergency workers against occupational hazards should be given high priority, as current environmental, economic, and political developments suggest an increase in the severity and frequency of future disasters.

Maintenance in Agriculture - A Safety and Health Guide (26/09/2011)

Agricultural workers suffer 1.7 times the average rate of non-fatal occupational accidents and 3 times the rate of fatal accidents, making the sector particularly hazardous. This guide describes the main hazards and risks associated with maintenance activities in agriculture and the most common causes of accidents and ill health. The guide also provides advice on risk management, examples of good practice in accident prevention and policies and campaigns at national level. Finally, it includes examples of checklists for safe maintenance in agriculture.

A review of accidents and injuries to road transport drivers (11/05/2011)

This review presents reports of work-related road transport accidents, near misses, and other effects relating to ill health that give details concerning the causes and effects of the accidents. The main focus of the report is on road transport activities that take place on the public highway; however light deliveries are included, as well as buses and taxis. The overall aim is to present ‘lessons’ suitable for the non-OSH expert. The emphasis is on accident and injury resulting from occupational risks in the road transport sector that should have been prevented or controlled, not road accidents of a general nature.

Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture (31/01/2011)

The report presents the prevalence of violence and harassment at work based on international and national statistics, as well as the results of scientific studies on antecedents and consequences of work-related violence. A survey of the Agency's Focal Point network suggest that there is still an insufficient level of awareness and recognition of problems with third-party violence and harassment in many EU Member States, and there is a clear need to promote and disseminate good practice and prevention measures which are sensitive to the national context. Some measures proposed by EU, ILO, WHO and national experts are included in the report.

E-fact 53: Risk assessment for biological agents (25/10/2010)

Following a brief introduction to biological agents and the hazards generated by these agents, e-fact includes sections on ‘How to do a Risk Assessment’ and ‘How to use a Checklist’. A checklist is then presented to help identify the hazards potentially posed by biological agents. An extensive list of ‘proposed solutions and examples of preventive measures’ is then considered in the light of some of the questions raised in the general checklist. An example of risk assessment relating to legionella is then presented. Finally, sources of further information are presented at the end of the e-fact.

A review of methods used across Europe to estimate work-related accidents and illnesses among the self-employed (25/10/2010)

The overall proportion of self-employed workers is stable in Europe, however there has been a marked growth over recent years in the number of self-employed working in the services and construction sectors. The level of self-employment in high risk sectors such as agriculture and construction means that the capturing of accurate OSH data for this group becomes ever more important. Currently, such information is available at European level from surveys of workers, such as Eurofound’s European working conditions survey (EWCS) and the LFS (2007 ad-hoc module on accidents at work and work-related health problems) and from accident registers (ESAW). Although national differences in definitions, reporting rates and systems render comparative data analysis difficult, there is scope for improving the quality of monitoring of OSH for self-employed through the sharing of knowledge about current practices across Europe. This report describes monitoring systems currently in use and highlights any recent initiatives designed to improve the monitoring of OSH with respect to self-employed in ten selected Member States (Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Malta, The Netherlands and Poland).

Economic incentives to improve occupational safety and health: a review from the European perspective (28/09/2010)

The European Union strategy 2007-12 on occupational safety and health (OSH) recognises that there is a need to use economic incentives to motivate enterprises to apply good practice in their prevention work. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) contributes to meeting this need by providing information on the types of economic incentives that are most likely to succeed. Research has shown that external economic incentives can motivate further investments in prevention in all organisations and thus lead to lower accident rates. The primary target audience are organisations that can provide economic incentives to improve OSH, such as insurance companies, social partners or governmental institutions. These organisations are regarded as important intermediaries to stimulate further efforts in OSH in their cooperating enterprises, e.g. as clients of insurances. Therefore a network of such organisations has been established in form of an expert group, which supports the project with advice and helps to promote the results.

E-fact 50 - Cost-benefit-analysis of economic incentives at national level (28/09/2010)

Two examples that investigate the costs and benefits of incentive schemes are presented. The first example is the financial incentive system of the Fleischerei -Berufsgenossenschaft (institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention in the meat-processing industry) in Germany (Krüger H., 2008). The second example looks into an incentivising scheme for return to work initiatives in the UK (Nera, 2006).

Mainstreaming OSH into business management (06/07/2010)

Organisations deal with OSH in different ways: some organisations have little expertise in OSH and react to problems such as occupational accidents, work-related diseases and absenteeism in an ad hoc way, while others strive to manage OSH more systematically, and even proactively, by implementing OSH into the organisation’s overall management. This report aims to provide evidence and information on how OSH can be incorporated into general management and business, thereby achieving safer and healthier working environments, and better general organisational performance. This report comprises three main parts, each with a different specific focus: (1) a literature review, (2) an overview of related policies, and (3) a report of case studies and good practice. Readers should refer to the appropriate sections of the report for more detailed discussions and further information about each area.

OSH in figures: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the EU - Facts and figures (04/05/2010)

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) remain the most common occupational disease in the European Union and workers in all sectors and occupations can be affected. Recent figures, for example from Austria, Germany or France, also demonstrate an increasing impact of musculoskeletal disorders on costs. This latest report, following on from the Agency’s previous research, aims to give an updated overview of the current European situation as regards musculoskeletal disorders, the trends over the years since the first campaign in 2000, and a detailed insight into the causes and circumstances behind MSDs. The report highlights the main issues and aims to provide a well-founded evidence base, helping policy makers, actors at enterprise and sector level, as well as researchers and those who record, prevent and compensate occupational diseases in the European Union to set the agenda for the next years.

Factsheet 92 - Integración de la SST en la gestión empresarial: Resumen de un informe de la Agencia (05/02/2010)

La Hoja informativa 92 brinda una síntesis de un informe orientado a facilitar información sobre cómo incorporar la SST a la gestión operativa en general. El informe incluye una revisión de la bibliografía, una síntesis de las políticas relacionadas y ejemplos de buenas prácticas.

Hoja informativa 90 – Mantenimiento y SST: Una visión estadística (03/02/2010)

Las enfermedades profesionales y los problemas de salud relacionados con el trabajo (como la asbestosis, el cáncer, los trastornos auditivos y los trastornos músculo-esqueléticos) prevalecen especialmente entre los trabajadores encargados de llevar a cabo actividades de mantenimiento, expuestos asimismo a todo tipo de accidentes. Los datos de EUROSTAT sobre cinco Estados miembros de la UE indican que, durante el año 2006, al menos el 15-20% del total de accidentes y el 10-15% del total de accidentes con víctimas mortales guardaban relación con las operaciones de mantenimiento. Es imprescindible aplicar procedimientos apropiados de evaluación de riesgos en las operaciones de mantenimiento, así como emplear las medidas de prevención adecuadas para garantizar la seguridad y la salud de los trabajadores encargados de las actividades de mantenimiento.

Hoja informativa 89 - Mantenimiento seguro para empresarios. Trabajadores seguros: ahorro económico (01/02/2010)

Las tareas de mantenimiento se realizan en todos los puestos de trabajo y sectores industriales. Considerando la heterogeneidad de los peligros y riesgos asociados, podría ser necesario incluir el mantenimiento en el sistema global de gestión de la empresa. Los aspectos centrales son dedicar suficiente tiempo y recursos, garantizar la formación y la competencia del personal de mantenimiento, aplicar sistemas de seguridad en el trabajo basados en una evaluación de riesgos adecuada y una comunicación eficaz entre el personal que trabaja en la producción y el de mantenimiento.

Hoja informativa 88 - Mantenimiento seguro - Trabajadores seguros (18/01/2010)

Las tareas de mantenimiento se realizan en todos los puestos de trabajo y sectores industriales. Estas tareas forman parte del deber cotidiano de la mayoría de los trabajadores, no sólo de los técnicos e ingenieros de mantenimiento. Los trabajadores que llevan a cabo tareas de mantenimiento están expuestos a muchos peligros; por lo tanto, los empresarios deben realizar una evaluación del riesgo en los procesos y hacer que los trabajadores participen en dicha evaluación. Los resultados de la evaluación deberían comunicarse a todas aquellas personas que se vean afectadas por ellos. Los sistemas de seguridad deberán aplicarse siempre en el trabajo, incluso en aquellas ocasiones en las que el tiempo apremie

Factsheet 86 - Prevención de daños a los trabajadores del sector de la limpieza (21/10/2009)

En todos los lugares de trabajo se realizan labores de limpieza. Esta actividad se encuentra enmarcada en un sector en crecimiento, dado que la limpieza es un servicio sujeto cada vez más a contratación externa. Aunque existen grandes contratistas de servicios de limpieza, en el sector abundan las empresas pequeñas, en muchos casos con menos de 10 empleados. La limpieza es una tarea esencial que, si se realiza correctamente, puede contribuir a reducir los riesgos para la seguridad y la salud de los trabajadores así como los costes para la empresa, por ejemplo ampliando la vida útil de los equipos y el mobiliario del lugar de trabajo, y manteniendo las superficies de suelos en buenas condiciones. En algunos sectores como el de la alimentación y la restauración, una limpieza deficiente puede llevar a una empresa a la quiebra.

Preventing harm to cleaning workers (20/10/2009)

This report considers the challenges to be overcome in improving the safety and health of cleaners, and examines actions taken to achieve this goal. By its nature, the report focuses on challenges associated with cleaning tasks, seeking solutions to these challenges that can reduce the risks to workers’ health and safety.

The human-machine interface as an emerging risk (04/10/2009)

Interaction with – and dependence on – technology is increasing in almost all fields of work. Given that a poor human-machine interface can have serious consequences in terms of occupational accidents and diseases, including stress, its proper inclusion in design equipment and workplace is of utmost importance. Based on a literature survey and a small expert survey, this report explores how the human-machine interface influences occupational risks, describing who is exposed, and giving some examples of what can be done to reduce the risk.

Preventing risks to young workers: policy, programmes and workplace practices (01/10/2009)

Young workers (15–24 years) are a very vulnerable group when it comes to occupational safety and health (OSH). However, the majority of OSH risks are preventable — whether they involve young or older workers — by applying the principles of risk assessment and putting in place the necessary preventive measures. To support information exchange on best practice, the agency has produced a report about how the occupational safety and health of young workers can be managed at policy and practice level. The report includes a variety of case studies and also identifies some success factors for prevention.

Report - Occupational safety and health and economic performance in small and medium-sized enterprises: a review (07/07/2009)

The present review examines the link between Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) and economic performance, especially as it relates to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). It is essential to stress from the outset that while there is no clear definition of economic performance, there are indicators that can examine the concept and its importance to businesses. OSH is not usually viewed as a contributory factor to the economic viability of an organisation. Compliance with government guidelines, regulations and laws is generally the primary focus of OSH policies. Perceptions of the connection between effective OSH and the resulting financial benefits could, and should be improved. The strong economic advantages of good occupational health practice need to be highlighted continuously to organisations because the failure to acknowledge the importance of this link will limit the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing disease and injury (Lahiri, Levenstein, Nelson and Rosenberg, 2005; Toffel and Birkner, 2002). Additionally, while the cost of ensuring safety is important, “unsafety” is also costly (Rimington, 1993). For example, a reduction of accidents, damage and improvements to poor health can lead to a reduction in costs and a greater availability of people and plant. This, in turn, can improve efficiency and thereby heighten the effectiveness of businesses (Smallman and John, 2001).

E-fact 41 - Cleaners and dangerous substances (17/10/2008)

Cleaners are at risk from exposure to cleaning products through inhalation and skin contact, wet work activities, needle stick injuries and dirt. Skin problems are the most common problem for cleaners, who are also at increased risk of developing asthma, chronic bronchitis and other respiratory problems This E-Fact looks at how to recognise dangerous substances and explains how they can enter the body and cause harm. It also offers ways to prevent or minimise risk.

E-fact 39 - Cleaners and musculoskeletal disorders (17/10/2008)

This E-Fact offers important information about about work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Numerous investigations have shown that cleaners are at risk of developing MSDs of the back, neck, shoulders, elbows, hands and lower limbs as a result of their work. The E-Fact identifies the risk factors that cleaners face in the course of their work and provides advice on the practical steps that can be taken to prevent or reduce these risks.

E-fact 38 - Equipos de trabajo, herramientas y productos de limpieza (17/10/2008)

Esta hoja pretende informar a las empresas, supervisores, trabajadores y sus representantes, especialmente a los de las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYME) sobre los peligros inherentes a las actividades de limpieza y cómo pueden evitarse los daños a los profesionales que las realizan. Conviene destacar que, toda vez que los trabajadores del sector de la limpieza trabajan en una gran variedad de entornos de trabajo, no es posible abordar toda la gama de problemas posibles. Los lectores deberán consultar la legislación aplicable en sus Estados miembros y, en caso de duda, recabar información adicional de los organismos competentes.

E-fact 37 - Slips, trips, falls and cleaners (17/10/2008)

This E-Fact explains the most commons causes of slips, trips and falls. It examines why cleaners are especially at risk from these type of accidents and outlines the steps that can be taken to prevent them happening. It also lists the relevant legislation protecting cleaners.

E-fact 36: Prevención de accidentes y enfermedades de los trabajadores del sector de la limpieza (17/10/2008)

Los trabajadores del sector de la limpieza desarrollan su actividad en todas las ramas de la industria y en muy distintos lugares de trabajo, desde los hoteles hasta los hospitales y desde las fábricas a las granjas. Trabajan tanto dentro de los edificios como al aire libre, incluyendo las zonas públicas. A menudo realizan su trabajo de noche o a primeras horas de la mañana, a veces solos; están presentes por doquier y su labor resulta esencial.

E-fact 35 - Risk Assessment for Care Workers (23/09/2008)

Following a brief introduction about home care workers and OSH in care worker activities, the article includes sections on ‘How to do a Risk Assessment’ and ‘How to use a Checklist’. A general checklist is then presented to help determine ‘Does the hazard exist at the workplace?’. An extensive list of ‘Proposed solutions and examples of preventive measures’ is then considered, for the different questions posed in the general checklist. A case study is then presented, showing how appropriate education and training and the use of risk assessment tools and a resource guide can alter a home care worker’s perception of occupational safety and health issues and through this reduce the potential for injuries and claims. Finally, sources of further information are presented at the end of the article.

E-fact 33 - Risk assessment for Teleworkers (23/09/2008)

Following a brief introduction to teleworking and occupational health and safety issues faced by teleworkers, the article includes sections on ‘How to do a Risk Assessment’ and ‘How to use a Checklist’. A checklist is then presented to help identify the hazards applied to teleworking. An extensive list of ‘proposed solutions and examples of preventive measures’ is then considered for some of the questions raised in the general checklist. A case study is then presented, showing the challenges faced by teleworking. Finally, sources of further information are presented at the end of the article.

Forum 17 - Working safely in a multicultural HORECA sector : Forum publication on a Workshop held by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 26-27 February 2007, Bilbao (14/07/2008)

This Forum publication reports on the workshop, ‘Working safely in a multicultural HORECA sector’, which was held in Bilbao, Spain from 26-27 February 2007. Its aims were to identify the main occupational safety and health problems of the hotel, restaurant and catering sector’s multicultural workforce, before moving on to share good practice and develop approaches to solve their problems. The HORECA sector has a high proportion of migrant workers, many of whom have few vocational qualifications and poor language skills. Working conditions in the sector are often poor, exposing workers to many hazards that may damage their health. These include musculoskeletal disorders, dermatological problems and respiratory problems.

Forum 17 - Working safely in a multicultural HORECA sector : Forum publication on a Workshop held by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 26-27 February 2007, Bilbao (14/07/2008)

This Forum publication reports on the workshop, ‘Working safely in a multicultural HORECA sector’, which was held in Bilbao, Spain from 26-27 February 2007. Its aims were to identify the main occupational safety and health problems of the hotel, restaurant and catering sector’s multicultural workforce, before moving on to share good practice and develop approaches to solve their problems. The HORECA sector has a high proportion of migrant workers, many of whom have few vocational qualifications and poor language skills. Working conditions in the sector are often poor, exposing workers to many hazards that may damage their health. These include musculoskeletal disorders, dermatological problems and respiratory problems.

Report - Protecting workers in hotels, restaurants and catering (14/07/2008)

The hotel, restaurant and catering (HORECA) sector covers a wide range of different businesses including hotels, pubs and restaurants, contract caterers in various industrial and commercial premises, fast-food takeaways, cafes and bistros. It plays an important role as a job creator in the service sector and in the economy as a whole in many EU Member States. Employing as it does more than 7.8 million people, it is important to manage the risks and prevent the causes of accidents and ill health in the HORECA sector. The aim of this report is to make available information relating to occupational safety and health in HORECA and to provide an overview of good practices at both the policy and workplace level.

Factsheet 81 - Evaluación de riesgos: la clave para unos trabajos saludables (05/04/2008)

La evaluación de riesgos constituye la base para una gestión eficaz de la seguridad y la salud, así como la clave para reducir la siniestralidad laboral y las enfermedades profesionales. Si se aplica de manera adecuada, la evaluación puede mejorar la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y el rendimiento de las empresas en general.

Factsheet 80 - Evaluación de riesgos: funciones y responsabilidades (04/04/2008)

La seguridad y salud de los trabajadores se garantiza en Europa mediante un enfoque basado en la gestión y evaluación de riesgos. Con el fin de efectuar una evaluación eficaz de riesgos en el lugar de trabajo, todas las partes que participan en ella deben entender claramente el contexto jurídico, los conceptos, el proceso de evaluación de riesgos y el papel que deberán desempeñar los principales agentes que participen en el proceso

E-fact 30 - Occupational safety and health in the textiles sector (02/04/2008)

The textiles industry employs more than 2 million people in Europe, the majority of whom are women. Significant hazards include manual handling, using machinery, being struck by an object, contact with chemical agents, noise and slips and trips. The resulting health problems include musculoskeletal disorders, hearing damage and occupational asthma and respiratory irritation. This E-fact outlines the hazards and risks and the general approach on managing occupational safety and health in the sector.

Factsheet 79 - La protección de los trabajadores del sector de la hostelería, la restauración y el catering (15/02/2008)

El sector de la hostelería, la restauración y el catering (Horeca) comprende hoteles, bares, cervecerías, restaurantes, contratistas de catering, establecimientos de comida rápida para llevar, cafeterías y tabernas. Se trata de un importante generador de empleo en el sector servicios y, en muchos Estados miembros de la UE, en la economía en su conjunto. Actualmente, este sector en crecimiento da empleo a más de 7,8 millones de personas en la Unión Europea. Esta hoja informativa presenta las conclusiones del informe sobre revención en el sector Horeca. Su objetivo es proporcionar una visión general de la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo (SST), identificar buenas prácticas y examinar los principales cambios que acontecen en el sector en materia económica y de empleo.

E-fact 28: Técnicas de movilización manual de pacientes para prevenir los trastornos musculoesqueléticos en el sector de la atención sanitaria (11/01/2008)

Los trastornos musculoesqueléticos (TME) de origen laboral son un problema grave para el personal hospitalario y, en particular, para el de enfermería. Suscitan especial preocupación las lesiones dorsolumbares y de hombro, que pueden ser gravemente debilitantes. Está demostrado que la enfermería es una de las profesiones con mayor riesgo de lumbalgiai. La causa principal de los TME son las tareas de movilización manual de pacientes, como levantarles, trasladarles y cambiarles de posición.

E-fact 27 - Entornos calurosos en el sector de la hostelería, la restauración y el catering (Horeca) (11/01/2008)

Los trabajadores del sector de la hostelería están expuestos al riesgo de estrés térmico tanto al descargar abastos como al trabajar en cocinas o atender el servicio. En las cocinas, en particular, se generan elevados índices de calor y de humedad. En verano, tales condiciones pueden empeorar. La presente publicación de la serie «E-fact» brinda una síntesis de los factores que incrementan el riesgo de estrés térmico, explica el modo de reconocer y de tratar los trastornos derivados del calor, y detalla los beneficios que entraña aplicar controles y prácticas laborales adecuadas, especialmente en el ámbito de la cocina profesional.

E-fact 24 - Trastornos musculoesqueléticos (TME) en HORECA (11/01/2008)

El sector HORECA (hostelería, restauración y catering) da empleo a aproximadamente 7,8 millones de personas en la Unión Europea. Se caracteriza por una elevada proporción de pequeñas empresas, jóvenes trabajadores, mujeres e inmigrantes . Las condiciones de trabajo pueden ser difíciles y con unas importantes exigencias (en especial debido al contacto directo con los clientes), unas elevadas cargas de trabajo y jornadas de trabajo irregulares y con temporalidad . La consecuencia es un grave riesgo de problemas de salud relacionados con el trabajo, entre ellos los TME.

E-fact 21 - Introduction to the HORECA Sector (11/01/2008)

This E-Fact gives an introduction to the hotel, restaurant and catering sector (HORECA), one of the fastest growing sectors in Europe. It employs more than 7.8 million people and is dominated by small, independent family-owned businesses. Most workers — 54% of which are women — are employed in bars and restaurants. Jobs tend to be temporary, with irregular hours, low pay and few career prospects. As a result, there is a high proportion of young people working in the sector. Typically, employees are poorly qualified. Yet, as a case study from the UK proves, good employment practices and investment in staff can reduce labour turnover and boost performance.

Report - OSH in figures: Young workers - Facts and figures (10/12/2007)

This publication seeks to review in depth what risks young workers are exposed to at work and what the consequences of these exposures are, in both the short term and the long term for young workers. This is done not only by analysing statistics and studies but also through selected case studies of prevention. By bringing this wealth of information together, the Agency hopes to contribute to better protection of young people as they embark on their working life and therefore, to their improved health throughout it.

E-Fact 20 - Checklist for the prevention of accidents in laboratories (28/11/2007)

Laboratories involve a greater variety of hazards than most workplaces. This e-fact sheet focuses on safety in chemical and biological laboratories in particular. It outlines EU legislation on laboratory safety, particularly as it relates to chemical and biological hazards, and pregnant and young workers. It summarises hazards that the lab worker can encounter and gives examples of serious lab accidents that could have been prevented if proper safety measures had been taken. It concludes with a set of checklists to help workers in laboratories assess possible risks, and to monitor safety processes. The checklists cover: General laboratory safety; Information for workers; Chemical safety; Biological safety; Hygiene; Emergency procedures; Personal Protective Equipment (PPE); Hazardous waste.

Report - Expert forecast on Emerging Biological Risks related to Occupational Safety and Health (25/09/2007)

About 320,000 workers worldwide die every year of communicable diseases, some 5,000 in the European Union. In the last decade, media coverage has raised public awareness of biological hazards, such as anthrax at work due to bioterrorist activities, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the threat of avian flu. But biological agents are ubiquitous and, in many workplaces, workers face considerably harmful biological risks. The Community strategy 2002-06 called on the Agency to 'set up a risk observatory' to 'anticipate new and emerging risks'. This report sets out to present the results of the forecast on emerging OSH biological risks, which is the second forecast of emerging risks carried out in this context.

Factsheet 70 - Trabajadores jóvenes. Datos y cifras. Exposición a los riesgos y efectos sobre la salud (20/06/2007)

Esta hoja informativa resume un informe del Observatorio Europeo de Riesgos sobre los trabajadores jóvenes. La publicación trata de ofrecer una visión general de los peligros a los que estos trabajadores se exponen en el trabajo y de las consecuencias de tal exposición tanto a corto como a largo plazo. Para ello, analiza estadísticas e investigaciones, así como estudios de casos en el terreno de la prevención. Muchos de los sectores y de los trabajos en que están empleados los jóvenes se caracterizan por la alta siniestralidad y por la exposición a múltiples riesgos laborales. Es preciso adoptar medidas específicas en el terreno de la educación y de la formación, al igual que en la práctica diaria en el lugar de trabajo. La hoja informativa ofrece diversas recomendaciones.

Factsheet 67 - El ruido en cifras (01/06/2007)

Este informe constituye el primero de una serie de informes temáticos del Observatorio de Riesgos dedicados a un riesgo, sector o grupo de trabajadores específicos. El informe pretende describir la situación en Europa en lo que concierne a la exposición al ruido en el trabajo, identificar grupos de riesgo y poner de manifi esto las tendencias y nuevos motivos de preocupación. Estas actividades forman parte de un proyecto mayor cuyo objetivo es la detección precoz de tendencias y riesgos emergentes en el trabajo con el fin de contribuir a una mejor asignación de los recursos y permitir intervenciones más oportunas y eficaces.

E-fact 8 - A statistical portrait of the health and safety at work of young workers (24/10/2006)

Young workers are particularly vulnerable to workplace accidents and may also suffer ill health from their work. This summary presents the available European data and offers some explanations as to the reasons for differences seen by younger and older workers.

E-fact 7 - Worker safety representatives and the protection of young workers (24/10/2006)

Young people may be at particular risk in the workplace because they lack experience and training, because they do not have the confidence to raise problems and want to appear keen and enthusiastic to their employer, or because of physical or mental immaturity. Worker safety representatives have the right to be consulted on workplace health and safety matters, including those relating to young workers. If you are a worker safety representative, this summary provides some information about looking out for young people in your workplace, and helping to ensure their safety and health.

E-fact 5 - Hazards and Risks in the Retail Trade: advice for young workers (24/10/2006)

Many young people work in shops, supermarkets and stores. But working in the retail sector can be hazardous, especially when you are young and new to the job. Some hazards, such as the risk of slips or falls, are found in many other industries. Others are more specific to the retail sector. You may be at risk from moving vehicles in delivery areas, falling objects, and strains on your body from lifting loads and making repetitive movements. You may also be at risk of being assaulted or threatened by members of the public. But there are things that can be done to control these hazards and risks effectively.

E-fact 2 - Preventing vehicle accidents in construction (27/09/2004)

Construction work is considered to be one of the most hazardous industrial activities in the EU. The rate of injury in the construction industry is higher than in other industries. The most frequent causes of death in the construction industry are falls from height, followed by fatal accidents with vehicles.

Factsheet 38 - Evaluación de riesgos para pequeñas embarcaciones de pesca (17/06/2003)

La pesca es una de las profesiones más peligrosas. El riesgo de accidentes es 2,4 veces mayor en el sector pesquero que la media en todos los sectores industriales de Europa. El trabajo en un medio difícil con turnos de trabajo largos e irregulares aumenta el número, la posibilidad o la gravedad de las enfermedades y de los accidentes de origen laboral que sufren los trabajadores. El objetivo de la presente hoja informativa es ayudar a las personas que trabajan en el campo de la salud y de la seguridad a reducir los riesgos de los trabajadores en este peligroso sector laboral mediante la elaboración de evaluaciones de riesgos y la toma de medidas preventivas. En este sentido, es responsabilidad de los empresarios evaluar los riesgos, así como dar a conocer la información necesaria a los trabajadores.

Factsheet 37 - La mejora de la seguridad y la salud laborales en las PYME: ejemplos de asistencia eficaz (16/06/2003)

Las PYME contribuyen de forma importante a mejorar la competitividad europea; la mayoría de los puestos de trabajo que se crean en Europa corresponden a pequeñas empresas con menos de seis empleados. Ahora bien, dichas empresas se enfrentan a dificultades concretas como la gestión eficaz de la seguridad y la salud, lo que ha llevado a los Estados miembros a tomar una serie de medidas para fomentar la creación de empresas. La Agencia ha acometido proyectos de distinta envergadura para mejorar la seguridad y la salud laborales en las PYME. Entre estos proyectos destacan los programas especiales de subvenciones para buenas prácticas de salud y seguridad en las PYME puestos en marcha por el Parlamento Europeo y por la Comisión Europea. En este sentido, la Agencia también ha realizado un estudio de ejemplos prácticos de servicios de asistencia a la seguridad y la salud laborales prestados con éxito a pequeñas y medianas empresas. En dicho estudio se analizan distintas actividades y programas de asistencia lanzados por los Estados miembros a fin de: presentar una serie de ejemplos de programas de prevención para las PYME; determinar qué factores conducen al éxito y facilitar información que pueda hacerse extensiva para que otras empresas la utilicen o adapten a su situación particular.

Factsheet 36 - Prevención de accidentes en el sector de la construcción (24/04/2003)

En la Unión Europea el sector en el que existe un mayor riesgo de accidentes (1) es el de la construcción: cada año mueren más de 1 300 personas en accidentes de construcción. En todo el mundo, los trabajadores de la construcción tienen una probabilidad tres veces mayor de morir y dos veces mayor de resultar lesionados que los trabajadores de otros sectores. Estos accidentes tienen un coste enorme para la persona, para el empresario y para la sociedad. Pueden representar una proporción notable del precio del contrato. Más del 99 % de las empresas constructoras europeas son pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYME). Por consiguiente, las PYME son las más afectadas por los accidentes de construcción. El asesoramiento que figura en esta ficha informativa es aplicable a empresas de cualquier tamaño.

Factsheet 35 - La comunicación de la información relativa a las sustancias peligrosas (07/03/2003)

La Agencia está elaborando una serie de hojas informativas relativas a la información sobre la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo para la Semana Europea para la Seguridad y la Salud en el Trabajo 2003. La comunicación eficaz acerca de los riesgos para la salud de los trabajadores y su gestión en el lugar de trabajo es un desafío común tanto para los empresarios como para los trabajadores y sus representantes. Esta hoja informativa aborda los elementos que han de tenerse en cuenta para una comunicación satisfactoria.

Report - New trends in accident prevention due to the changing world of work (07/10/2002)

Changes in the world of work can give rise to new risk areas or change the way that occupational safety and health needs to be managed. This has implications for workplaces themselves and also for the occupational safety and health system.

Factsheet 28 - Evaluación económica de la prevención de accidentes de trabajo en la empresa (30/07/2002)

La mejora de la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo puede procurar beneficios económicos para las empresas. Los accidentes y las enfermedades profesionales pueden ser fuente de elevados costes para la empresa, especialmente para las pequeñas empresas, donde los accidentes de trabajo pueden tener una importante repercusión financiera. La información y las percepciones sobre los efectos futuros de las decisiones, formuladas preferentemente en términos monetarios, ayudan a los empresarios a tomar decisiones. El verdadero valor de la evaluación económica es su influencia en las convicciones de los responsables del proceso de toma de decisiones y de la formulación de políticas. A fin de obtener una eficiencia máxima a este respecto, la evaluación económica ha de ser una actividad conjunta en la que participen todos los interesados. Una manera efectiva es efectuar estimaciones financieras o económicas a fin de proporcionar una perspectiva general realista del coste total de los accidentes y los beneficios que procura su prevención.

Magazine 4 - La prevención de accidentes laborales (20/11/2001)

Los índices de accidentes de trabajo se han mantenido persistentemente altos a lo largo de la última década. Las estadísticas más recientes demuestran que en la Unión Europea casi 5 500 personas pierden la vida en el trabajo cada año y un número mucho mayor se lesiona. Además del sufrimiento humano, existe un impacto económico. Sólo los costes directos de los seguros de accidentes laborales se estiman cada año en torno a los 20 000 millones de euros y se pierden 149 millones de días laborables. Las personas, las empresas y la sociedad, todos pagan el precio. Por lo tanto, es imprescindible estar alerta para combatir los riesgos de accidente.

Factsheet 20 - Cómo reducir los accidentes de trabajo (01/11/2001)

La prevención de los accidentes en el lugar de trabajo sigue siendo un problema importante, como refleja el hecho de haber sido elegido el tema de la Semana Europea para la Seguridad y la Salud en el Trabajo 2001. En apoyo de esta iniciativa se ha realizado un estudio sobre los programas de prevención de accidentes en los Estados miembros de la Unión Europea. Los 22 casos que analiza el informe incluyen intervenciones a escala tanto nacional como regional y a nivel sectorial y empresarial.

Factsheet 18 - Prevención de accidentes de carretera en los que estén implicados vehículos pesados de mercancías (01/10/2001)

Las empresas de éxito incorporan la seguridad vial en su política de calidad Todos los años fallecen en la UE unos 800 camioneros en accidentes de tráfico, lo que hace de esta profesión una actividad peligrosa. Todos los trabajadores, incluidos los del sector del transporte por carretera, tienen derecho a un trabajo seguro y saludable. Los accidentes también tienen efectos en los costes de las empresas: aquéllas que adoptan medidas de seguridad vial suelen reducir sus gastos de funcionamiento gracias a ellas. Por otra parte, los accidentes en que se ven envueltos los vehículos pesados de mercancías dañan la imagen del transporte por carretera y su aceptación por parte de los ciudadanos. Por todo ello, es preciso que las empresas del sector se comprometan firmemente a adoptar las medidas oportunas para reducir los riesgos a que se exponen sus conductores.

Factsheet 16 - Prevención de accidentes con vehículos de transporte en el lugar de trabajo (29/03/2001)

Cada año mueren en la UE alrededor de 5.500 personas en accidentes producidos en el lugar de trabajo, alrededor de un tercio de los cuales están relacionados con el transporte. Estos accidentes suelen afectar a personas que son golpeadas o atropelladas por vehículos en movimiento (p. ej. en maniobras marcha atrás), caen de vehículos, son golpeadas por objetos que caen de vehículos, o bien, por vehículos que vuelcan. Estos accidentes pueden evitarse aplicando medidas eficaces de gestión y prevención. La frecuencia de accidentes es mayor en las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYME) con menos de 50 empleados. El asesoramiento que figura en esta ficha informativa es aplicable al transporte en vehículos en toda clase de empresas, sea cual sea su tamaño.

Factsheet 15 - Prevención de accidentes en el sector de la construcción (29/03/2001)

En la Unión Europea el sector en el que existe un mayor riesgo de accidentes es el de la construcción: cada año mueren más de 1.300 personas en accidentes de construcción. En todo el mundo, los trabajadores de la construcción tienen una probabilidad tres veces mayor de morir y dos veces mayor de resultar lesionados que los trabajadores de otros sectores. Estos accidentes tienen un coste enorme para la persona, para el empresario y para la sociedad. Pueden representar una proporción notable del precio del contrato. Más del 99 % de las empresas constructoras europeas son pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYME). Por consiguiente, las PYME son las más afectadas por los accidentes de construcción. El asesoramiento que figura en esta ficha informativa es aplicable a empresas de cualquier tamaño.